price controls and money

In this essay  there is going to be  three topics: two are about money. While the one is about price controls; you would likely hear this one talked about once in awhile on the news and/or internet. The first question is: What problems  do price controls cause, and what are  the benefits of letting prices adjust without government inference?  when the law forces the prices down  it causes problems. One of the problems it causes, is more demand on products that are in shortage mode. Another is, it causes most of the sellers to stop selling the product/products  due to very low  price during a shortage. The  benefits are that  when the prices goes low  when the demand is low  plus there is no shortage. Yet, prices goes high up  when  the demand  is  high while there a shortage of the product or products . In addition, sellers continue to  sell the product/products due to earn money(enough money to fullfill their needs and enough to continue selling the product or products)  and they they have more freedom.  The second question is: What is the origion of money?(In other words ,how did  money first arise?) Money began at the time of bartering where people would trade goods  for goods for a time. Soon, there was  problems in bartering so, they would trade their goods for gold to get the things they wanted.  Then, everyone moved from bartering to gold coins. Afterwards, prices come around after they were use to gold coins but after  a whilegold coins got hard and heavy to carry around everywhere So as a replcement og gold coins , paper dollars came from the government to the people .They had to spend time to get use to  the new form of money before having their gold coins taken  away.In addition, once they were use to the paper money; they  were able to set prices just like how they did for  the gold coins. The third question is:Name and explain three disadvantages that have been identified with fiat money.The first one is high prices  cause by lots of fiat money  which makes the people who waits until the end of the month  to pay more than those who  paid less at the beginning of the month. The second one is pushing down interest rates artifically with fiat money. Which makes confusion between businesses and the people. In addition, it causes  business firms to fall and  the people to fall into a depression. The third one, is  that   it causes  power for the government  to create  money out of thin air .Furthermore, fiat money  loses it value as more is printed.

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taxes and programs

By seeing the title one knows it about taxes and programs, which it is. There is going to be four topics that are going to be discuss. The first  one  is about the ” benefit principle” while another is about cutting the most liked program/programs.  The next, is about a  main problem a policy maker  who is trying to make a gram to help those with adictives such as smoking and/or drinking.Then, there is  another program however,  this one invovles the anti-poverty. As you can  see  the majority of the topics is about programs: About three-fourths . The first question is: The “benefit principle” has been used to justify in income taxation.What is benefit principle? Are there any problems with it? If so, what? It is a principle where people  arwe taxed in accordance with benefits they get from the government . Yes, there  are problems with it. The problems with it, are: taxation matches benefits recieve from the government, less or none at all money to spend/used,plunder:taking people money through matching taxation with benefits. In other words, the benefit principle is really worthless since they take large amounts of one’s money through income taxes.  The next question is: what is the washington monument syndrome? When higher-ups decide to cut something due to being low  in budget.They decide to cut a program/programs that everyone likes ,instead of the least liked program. By doing  that the public will try it hardest to make the budget to it usual self and the so program  they like is back.  Followed by the third question which is: What is the primary problem  facing a policy-maker who is trying to design  a program to benefit people  in unfortunate circumstanes?  Is to design  a program that will reward people who stop smoking, for instance. In addition, to make the reward not too low nor too right, but just right. Also, to not attract people who  not doing what the program’s main purpose is to help get rid of. In additon, to not  have most people doing what the program is trying to get rid of.  Such as, more  people  who is not smoking start to smoke  just because of the reward: Hinting the  reward for people who stop smoking is too high  and it is atracting more people because of that. Another example,  the program attracts more people who are not smoking but starts  and can not stop smoking because  they became hooked on it. Also, the programs has more smokers than those who quit smoking.  And finally our last question, which is: In practice, what have been some of the outcome -unitended or intended – of anti- poverty programs?  Some of the outcomes have been intend of the anti – poverty programs. Because some people do give money to others that are in anti – poverty programs to end poverty.Which us a good thing my reason being us that they want to improve  the society and help the poor.

business cycle,interest rates, and private-property rights

In this essay , there is  two topics that are about : The first  one is what are the basics of Austrian theory of the business cycle. What are the difference, in terms if consequences, between lower interest rates that result from saving choice of individuals  and lower interest rates that are achieved artificallly, by the government-established  central bank? While the second one is, how can private-property rights solve envirnmental problems? These are  very excellent topics and questions.  The first question has two parts. the first part of the question is:  what are the basics of Austrian theory of business cycle? the answer to that is, in  the Austrian school of economy. Where they learn about two concepts which are, the structure of production: the highest to lowest levels of a product/product. such as, planting fruits which take  some years to grow , which is a highest level of production and the lowest level of production would be  to eat the fruits for a snack. The next thing they learn about is interest rates. They learn how  the interest rates going up and down and how the inerest rates go down when the the individuals start saving and how when the government-established central bank forces they down.  They learn how the interest rates go up due to the individuals buying more food,clothes and shoes,  and tv,etc. The second part of the first question is :What  is the difference between lower interest rates  th result from saving choice of individuals and lower interest rates that are achieved arifically, by the government -established central bank?  they are diffrent because  individuals willing save and buy less so inerest rates  drop naturally. While, when the government- establisheded central bank forces the interest rates down it causes  confusion between business firms  and people. Because , consumers(individuals) still buy as before and business firms  are trying  to do their projectts but find out the trucks  and serivces are not available, so  business firms drop from the top to the bottom at the same time.However, when interest rates drop naturally, business firms are able to use the trucks and services  that become available.In addition, there is no confusion. That is the difference between the two. The second  question is : how  can private-property rights solve envornmental problems? By  going to court and saying that the factory is polluting your property and your lungs and the factory would get punsh for doing that . Also,  factories and businesses would move to a place where  there was no one lived  and would use the most expensive coal so they  wouldn’t get sued and punished. So in other words, they would try their best not to get in trouble.

anti- trust and world war 2

In this essay there are going to be two topics that are really good to know, just saying. They are: how is the actually history of Anti-trust different from what the average person probably thinks it is? And, world war 2 was a time of great prosperity in the United States?  The first Question is how is the actually  history  of anti-trust different from what the average person  probably  probably thinks it is? It is  anti- consumer and  supports big business.Meaning, it gear wards businesses that  have a hard time competing  against the low prices offer by their competitors  and as a result anit-trust comes in  and punishes the competitors where they are driven them  out of business and break them up. but it does something to causes them (prices) to go up and it likes high prices .  The second question is, world war 2 was a time of great prosperity in the united States? No, it wasn’t. Because forty percent of the labor force were not producing consumer goods . In addition, the other  sixty percent  had to pay the foty percent not to produce  consumer goods because they were only buying weapons for war fromthe government.Therefore, fewer goods and fewer money:is that a time of great prosperity? – Asiyyah

working conditions and child labor

In this essay, there is two topics that are both about work. They are: Government must intervene  in the economy to bring about improved working conditions. The second one, what has been the most significant contributing factor to the abolition of child labor?    We sometimes hear on the news and/or  internet(msn) talking about child labor on farms and other places; they want to get rid of it  claiming that children should not work : let them be kids. Back on topic, the first question is government must intervene in the economy to bring about improved working conditions?  As we know  this is not true, my reason being is the government doesn’t  have to intervene in the economy to bring about  improved working conditions because it  would cause problems. the problems it would cause would likely be employer can not meet  the improve working conditions due to high prices  and /or rates, the employees would likely lose their jobs due to the employer losing his ( since he  csn not meet the requiremenrs), many jobs would plummet to the ground  (if they don’t meet he requirements) . While in the  future and as prices go down the employer will be able  to improve  the workplace, and through that the employee would accept or reject to get  lower pay due to  the improvement.Such as,  having air condition at a sweatshop while they (workers) work. However, if there is no improvement at the workplace the employer would have to pay the employees more to stay and wok than to have the employees go leave to a workplace  that has improvement.But later on the employer would eventually improove the workplace so he won’t have to them alot all the time. so in other words,  the working conditions would improve  with time and as the prices for thess  improvements. The second question is  what has been the most significant contributing  factor to the abolition of child labor?  that it canactually go away, by more unvestment, business firms to be tax less if at all. So they can invest in capital equipment to make the economy grow.So there would be more stuff per person . That the family the would rejoice that they don’t have to break their hearts to send their child/children to work. – Asiyyah

income inequality and discrimination

This essay is going to have  two topics; one  of them you hear more often on the news and radio, while the other less often than  the other. They are: is “income inequality”  a problem in your opinion ? why or why not? and the other one is  what are the major assumptions on discrimination that most people make about discrimination? is there  good reason to doubt these assumptions?  As we know, discrimination is talked about mostly on news and radio more so than income inequality.  In addition, i felt that i should pick these two topics to write about since we hear them alot.  So back topic,  the first question is: is “income inequality ” a problem in your opinion? why or why not? There isn’t a problem with it  in my  opinion  because with inequality  of income helps the  poor due to services and causes others to work harder. This is why it is  way better  and helpful than”equality”.   while the second question is :what are the major assumptions on discrimination that  most people make  about discrimination? is there a good reason to doubt these assumptions?   The first one is : discrimination cause poverty, the second one is: group characteristics are mere “stereotypes”.  Third one is: differences in group outcomes are caused by crimination, the fourth one is :political action is necessary for oppressed groups to advance economically. Yes,, there is because  some groups start in poverty then rise up to the top (like the chinese).  Other differences are though age gaps , cultural ways, acadmic difference persist and geographical distribution. In addition, most of their assumptions can be  solved by being persist in their studies which will help with third-fourths  of their assumptions otherwise like the chinese they can move to other countries or other states.  -Asiyyah

lesson 20

In this essay there are going to be two topics: the first one is what are some of the the problems with the concept of public goods? While the second one is , describe the process by which the market economy tends toward an improvement in the standard of living.  The answer for  the first topic is : the problems with public goods is that you can’t exclude someone and/or people from see it such as, you can not prevent people from watching  either close where  it at or if someone is watching it from their house. Also, that you can not put a fee to pay it since it is a public good, it is free.  Another problem with it is that there would be freeriders and you wouldn’t get alot of money if there is alot of people at what you display.  The answer for the second topic is: on  a free market where there is little taxation or  none at all. The free market economy, business firms have to keep , save, and invest their profits. Use their profits  to buy capital goods. Capital goods allow them to produce more consumer goods at lower cost.  These lower costs  through competition  other firms to get your money. Want to sell yoou goods, they don’t want other firms to get the most. By doing this, it improves our standard living since,  they save and  invest in their profits and  buy capital goods  which by buying them , they created a good money spending cycle: since the people who own the capital goods first gets money  from the firms spend on other goods, and so on. For an example, firms pay the people who sells the capital goods . Those people, then spend on goods, and needs which the money oes to others who sells goods,bill collectors,rent and personal needs and/or people who installs security systems. – Asiyyah